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Alcalase: A liquid enzyme preparation containing a protease suitable for use in high temperature, moderate pH, detergent products.


Aromatic amines: An aromatic ring that is connected to an amine group.


Aromatic ring: A hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.


Azo bond: -N=N- bond


Azoreductase: Full name: Azobenzene reductase; enzyme which catalyses break down of the azo bond.


Benzene ring: The hexagonal ring of bonded carbon atoms in the benzene molecule or its derivatives


Bioaccumulation: A process where an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by excretion.


Biodegradation: Break down of compounds by bacteria, fungi, enzymes or other biological means to minerals such as CO2, NH4+ or H2O.


Bioplastics: Plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, cornstarch, or microbiota.


Biosorption: A technique that can be used for the removal of pollutants from wastewater especially those that are not easily biodegradable such as metals and dyes.


Biotransformation: Chemical modification of a compound by bacteria, fungi, enzymes or other biological means.


Chromophores: An atom or a group of atoms whose presence is responsible for the colour of a compound Eg. N=N in azo dyes responsible for the colour of dyes.


Hydrophilic side group: A group of molecules attached to a backbone chain of a long molecule which have high affinity for water.


Intermediate products: Compounds which were made by breaking the azo bond.


Mineralisation: Synonym for biodegradation; break down of compounds by bacteria, fungi, enzymes or other biological means to minerals such as CO2, NH4+ or H2O.


Laccase: Enzyme (oxidoreductase) which is used for a variety of applications in commercial settings.


Luria broth: A nutritionally rich medium, for the culture and growth of bacteria.


Pectinase: An enzyme that breaks down pectin.


Peroxidase: It can be used for treatment of industrial waste waters and convert toxic materials into less harmful substances.


Photosynthetic: Involved in the process by which green plants and some other organisms (eg. algae) use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water.


Sulphonyl group: Its genral formula can be written as:  R-S(=O)2-R'.


Viscozyme L: Multi-enzyme complex containing a wide range of carbohydrases, including arabanase, cellulase, β-glucanase, hemicellulase, and xylanase. Viscozyme L is an effective enzyme for the extraction of polyphenols from unripe apples.