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Alcalase: A liquid enzyme preparation containing a protease suitable for use in high temperature, moderate pH, detergent products.

 

Aromatic amines: An aromatic ring that is connected to an amine group.

 

Aromatic ring: A hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

 

Azo bond: -N=N- bond

 

Azoreductase: Full name: Azobenzene reductase; enzyme which catalyses break down of the azo bond.


 

Benzene ring: The hexagonal ring of bonded carbon atoms in the benzene molecule or its derivatives

 

Bioaccumulation: A process where an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by excretion.

 

Biodegradation: Break down of compounds by bacteria, fungi, enzymes or other biological means to minerals such as CO2, NH4+ or H2O.

 

Bioplastics: Plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, cornstarch, or microbiota.

 

Biosorption: A technique that can be used for the removal of pollutants from wastewater especially those that are not easily biodegradable such as metals and dyes.

 

Biotransformation: Chemical modification of a compound by bacteria, fungi, enzymes or other biological means.

 

Chromophores: An atom or a group of atoms whose presence is responsible for the colour of a compound Eg. N=N in azo dyes responsible for the colour of dyes.

 

Hydrophilic side group: A group of molecules attached to a backbone chain of a long molecule which have high affinity for water.

 

Intermediate products: Compounds which were made by breaking the azo bond.

 

Mineralisation: Synonym for biodegradation; break down of compounds by bacteria, fungi, enzymes or other biological means to minerals such as CO2, NH4+ or H2O.

 

Laccase: Enzyme (oxidoreductase) which is used for a variety of applications in commercial settings.

 

Luria broth: A nutritionally rich medium, for the culture and growth of bacteria.

 

Pectinase: An enzyme that breaks down pectin.

 

Peroxidase: It can be used for treatment of industrial waste waters and convert toxic materials into less harmful substances.

 

Photosynthetic: Involved in the process by which green plants and some other organisms (eg. algae) use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water.

 

Sulphonyl group: Its genral formula can be written as:  R-S(=O)2-R'.

 

Viscozyme L: Multi-enzyme complex containing a wide range of carbohydrases, including arabanase, cellulase, β-glucanase, hemicellulase, and xylanase. Viscozyme L is an effective enzyme for the extraction of polyphenols from unripe apples.